1860– The original cornerstone of the University of the South is laid in Sewanee, Tennessee.
*. 1868– Carlos Céspedes issues the Grito de Yara from his plantation, La Demajagua, proclaiming Cuba's independence
*. 1871– The Great Chicago Fire: Chicago burns after a barn accident. The fire lasts from October 8 to October 10.
*. 1897– German chemist Felix Hoffmann discovers an improved way of synthesizing acetylsalicylic acid(aspirin).
*. 1910– Tau Epsilon Phi: Tau Epsilon Phi Fraternity is founded on the campus of Columbia Universityin New York City, New York.
*. 1911– The Wuchang Uprising leads to the demise of the Qing dynasty, the last Imperial court in China, and the founding of the Republic of China.
*. 1913– United States President Woodrow Wilson triggers the explosion of the Gamboa Dike thus ending construction on the Panama Canal.
*. 1928– Chiang Kai-shek becomes Chairman of the Republic of China.
*. 1933– United Airlines Boeing 247 mid-air explosion: A United Airlines Boeing 247 is destroyed by sabotage, the first such proven case in the history of commercial aviation.
*. 1935– A coup d'état by the royalist leadership of the Greek Armed Forces takes place in Athens. It overthrows the government of Panagis Tsaldaris and establishes a regency underlying Georgios Kondylis, effectively ending the Second Hellenic Republic.
*. 1942– The Soviet Union establishes diplomatic relations with Australia.
*. 1944– Holocaust: Eight hundred Gypsy children are murdered at Auschwitz concentration camp.
*. 1957– U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower apologizes to the finance minister of Ghana, Komla Agbeli Gbedemah, after he is refused service in a Dover, Delaware restaurant.
*.1957 – The Windscale fire in Cumbria, U.K. is the world's first major nuclear accident.
*. 1963– France cedes control of the Bizerte naval base to Tunisia.
*. 1964– The opening ceremony of the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan, is broadcast live in the first Olympic telecast relayed by geostationary communication satellite
*. 1970– Fiji becomes independent.
*.1970 – In Montreal, a national crisis hits Canada when Quebec Vice-Premier and Minister of Labour Pierre Laporte becomes the second statesman kidnapped by members of the FLQ terrorist group.
*. 1971– Sold, dismantled and moved to the United States, London Bridge reopens in Lake Havasu City, Arizona.
*. 1973– Vice President of the United States Spiro Agnew resigns after being charged with evasion of federal income tax.
*. 1975– Papua New Guinea joins the United Nations.
*. 1980– A magnitude 7.3 earthquake occurs in the Algerian town of El Asnam. Around 3,500 die and 300,000 are left homeless.
*. 1985– United States Navy F-14fighter jets intercept an Egyptian plane carrying the hijackers of the Achille Lauro cruise ship, and force it to land at a NATO base in Sigonella, Sicily where they are arrested.
*. 1986– An earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale strikes San Salvador, El Salvador, killing an estimated 1,500 people.
*. 1997– An Austral Airlines DC-9-32crashes and explodes near Nuevo Berlin, Uruguay, killing 74.
*. 1998– A Lignes Aériennes Congolaises Boeing 727 is shot down by rebels in Kindu, Democratic Republic of the Congo, killing 41 people.
*. 2008– The 2008 Orakzai bombing kills 110 and injures 200 more.
*. 2009– Armenia and Turkey sign protocols in Zurich, Switzerland to open their borders.
*. 2010– The Netherlands Antilles are dissolved as a country.